Intergenerational Solidarity Index

Overview

The Intergenerational Solidarity Index is a measure of how much different nations provide for the wellbeing of future generations. The index has been developed by Jamie McQuilkin and was first published in 2018 in the peer-reviewed journal Intergenerational Justice Review. In 2020, a significantly revised and updated version of the index was published in Roman Krznaric’s book The Good Ancestor along with analysis by McQuilkin and Krznaric.

The index is made up of ten indicators of environmental, social and economic solidarity and covers 122 nations and over 91% of the world’s population. Each country is given a score ranging from 1 (low intergenerational solidarity) to 100 (high intergenerational solidarity).

These pages provide an overview of how different countries perform on the index, the relationship between the index and variables such as democratisation and state fragility, the methodology behind its construction, and links to download the data.

A Global Map of Intergenerational Solidarity

The following chart illustrates global patterns of intergenerational solidarity in the latest index.

Intergenerational Solidarity Country Rankings

The table below provides individual country scores and rankings, together with the underlying data used to calculate the index. To make the index, scores from all ten indicators are transformed into a score ranging from 1 to 100 and then averaged together. Details of the method and reasoning for this can be found on the method page.

CountryRankIntergenerational Solidarity IndexAnnual forest cover change (%)Carbon footprint intensity ($ GDP (PPP) per GHa)Renewable and nuclear (% of energy consumption)Wealth inequality Gini coefficientCurrent account balance (%GDP)Adjusted Net Savings (%GNI)Primary pupil: teacher ratioChild mortality, per 1000Predicted birth rate per woman; adjusted for child mortalityFossil hydrocarbon production (Mj/capita)
Iceland185.72.721780083.173.14.6712.9102.181.820
Sweden281.10.1481500067.286.53.3918.4122.861.860
Nepal377.901250040.569.92.4637.323.236.62.0311.3
Switzerland4770.3041780051.574.19.2117.210.24.321.530
Denmark576.31.031430026.183.67.7417.410.74.221.7293900
Hungary676.20.2231350022.966.22.711.810.85.081.4517800
France775.50.671540048.168.7-0.78.4718.24.121.95605
Costa Rica874.71.111460048.476.9-3.3314.512.89.121.790
Belgium974.70.0644116002165.9-0.6149.9411.241.710
Uruguay1074.51.251610046.574.1-0.64710.311.68.821.980
Ireland1173.60.7592170011.8836.1615.815.73.821.8511200
Austria1273.20.05571310036.376.42.181310.53.721.4810100
Slovenia1372.50.021070026.864.65.127.7916.12.481.5719800
Spain1472.20.1981630027.769.71.457.4213.13.31.321500
Sri Lanka1572.2-0.3182170016.868.7-2.5525.323.38.842.190
Finland1672-0.001321070047.576.7-1.087.6313.32.21.630
Croatia1771.80.02081170014.363.13.279.9513.74.91.4219400
Netherlands1871.50.178135005.6373.68.9115.511.74.041.67125000
Bulgaria1971.30.4521010027.364.72.3311.517.78.241.5132700
Belarus2070.80.22380201.7261.4-3.0921.317.34.041.677360
Vietnam21700.881749021.570.82.8515.219.321.81.9723400
New Zealand22700.001971180037.570.8-2.9312.814.65.941.9180300
Italy2369.90.5821460018.368.92.174.4611.83.441.357750
Luxembourg2469.901050012.566.35.0317.78.272.641.460
China2569.80.746608010.271.41.7621.416.510.81.6574800
Norway2667.80.02311970068.379.17.3419.28.922.741.731650000
Slovak Republic2767.50.01361110029.349.8-1.434.9215.26.061.415010
Germany2867.3-0.02841510010.781.67.8713.512.13.861.528100
Japan2967-0.00668119008.8663.13.15.5416.32.81.431450
Czech Republic3066.80.08021020017.275.80.7648.2918.93.161.5671800
Macedonia, FYR3166.30780013.565.5-1.3311.91511.71.4918300
Korea, Rep.3266-0.184861012.8676.0119.116.63.51.171170
Latvia3364.50.01831400012.578.8-0.5093.1611.25.041.660
Albania3463.9-0.1241300053.262.9-8.247.118.69.721.6516900
Israel3563.91.3595500.00081276.63.7515.912.13.923.0736800
Azerbaijan3663.72.36142001.0164.35.3114.613.826.51.89268000
Greece3763.60.7511100013.568.2-1.73-5.39.464.51.3322000
Malaysia3863.50.064115004.39822.9711.311.67.982.04134000
Romania3963.41.031610026.272.8-2.345.6319.19.221.5639200
Poland4063.20.228105000.70372.2-0.72410.110.44.881.3466700
Singapore4163-0.142188000.46175.817.436.415.12.721.20
Portugal4262.8-0.361410026.873.60.1322.0413.13.71.290
Bangladesh4362.7-0.182132000.66167.1-0.59725.933.336.22.056770
Estonia4462-0.52897601.4671.11.9313.611.43.21.560
United Kingdom4561.30.544142001774.7-4.464.56174.461.859500
Chile4660.81.731210021.177.3-2.155.1118.67.881.746360
Jamaica4760.5-0.113140003.7778.8-3.3912.922.115.920
Georgia4859.301190019.367.8-10.69.159.0110.62.022020
Peru4958.9-0.2261920023.279.5-3.019.411816.22.2929100
Australia5058.40.22296605.4265.8-3.066.4815.43.91.8666000
Thailand5158.40.183116004.1690.28.2812.216.310.51.5237700
Philippines52583.081990013.982.60.56128.230.230.12.723780
Myanmar5357.6-1.843860021.958.2-4.1125.124.251.72.0913200
Brazil5456.7-0.1991770036.682.3-1.936.7920.815.91.7231800
Canada5556.4-0.0134851034.372.6-2.937.0116.65.281.55467000
Ecuador5656.2-0.6241480019.277.6-0.68311.624.515.22.4678300
Morocco5755.4-0.142122007.2780.2-4.192026.425.62.45115
Tajikistan5854.50.2641400030.464.6-3.312.4322.437.83.483210
Brunei Darussalam5953.40182000.13878.616.937.410.210.81.921780000
Russian Federation6052.7-0.0050367907.9187.53.718.2320.18.521.74402000
Colombia6152.5-0.04561890026.680.7-4.63.4824.315.71.83105000
United States6252.50.0888986016.985.2-2.256.6414.56.81.82222000
Madagascar6351.9-0.1282070015.970.2-0.7335.9540.858.140
Turkey6451.60.8821340013.687.1-4.2711.819.212.72.079820
Fiji6551.10.48118009.2369.4-5.739.0719.724.72.720
Ukraine6650.80.227569021.195.5-1.71-0.39113.79.541.4641300
Panama6750.8-0.354232001679.5-9.2125.821.916.92.490
India6850.70.253109008.9485.4-1.3619.432.643.82.211200
Swaziland6950.20.7911250029.877.615.69.827.763.92.884040
Jordan7049.3084401.2967.7-8.588.0218.817.73.02488
Mexico7149-0.139121007.2180-2.056.1327.114.72.1862600
Indonesia7248.5-0.746182003.9984-2.311.515.7282.3257700
Mauritius7348.10.104107007.6264-4.66-5.8718.614.51.390
El Salvador7447.2-1.631020028.875.9-3.55.328.715.42.070
Honduras7547-2.551030024.280.4-4.0715.727.719.52.540
Botswana7645.6-0.934916010.278.35.5626.122.640.62.8420700
Cyprus7745.5-0.0162160003.4489.8-5.192.39132.741.350
Ethiopia7844.40.3261890039.561.2-9.977.4554.563.84.270
Tunisia7944.40.99110001.2968.3-9.64-5.9816.517.22.214800
Cambodia8044.4-1.331320019.170.4-8.9411.544.332.22.520
Burundi8143.51.72030039.665.4-12.4-19.346.267.55.310
Bolivia8241.9-0.52597308.477.9-3.943.2418.2312.884100
Kazakhstan8340.6055800.89495.2-1.927.3717.812.22.68450000
Kenya8440.50.836143002673.2-7.2-1.173146.43.60
Qatar8539.797600.0080261.57.9128.111.27.81.914200000
Lesotho8639.62.09651021.379.5-5.4910.83390.32.920
Senegal8738.1-0.48120300270.5-5.8810.532.250.44.59139
Rwanda88381.442470018.272.8-11.7-4.9858.541.73.990
Kuwait8937.90111000.022580.912.919.28.88.622.071860000
Bahrain9036.72.1370400.0080876.4-1.7514.211.97.562.04525000
South Africa9136.3064402.8980.6-3.740.34331.738.12.39108000
Belize9235.9-0.366369019.281.5-8.41-0.13721.115.32.413300
Algeria9334.60.39121000.49975.8-12.522.123.821.92.96178000
Niger9434.4-1.07116007.2966-16.96.1736.394.66.482090
Tanzania9533.9-0.8011910011.665-6.72143.959.14.781170
Lao PDR9633.81.023930055.779.7-10.9-7.312453.82.6521800
Malawi9733.7-0.5691670049.573.3-16.6-15.570.559.84.2792.5
Saudi Arabia9833.50113000811.5915.8118.622.49946000
Afghanistan9933.301230017.364.4-20.22.9444.770.64.631160
Ghana10032.40.3051050027.468.2-5.29-3.6430.254.93.829700
Uganda10132.4-6.162030028.871.4-6.52-7.1343.555.25.10
Mozambique10231.6-0.541624056.570-32.1-8.9754.182.34.6416500
Egypt, Arab Rep.10331.10.829149003.9690.9-3.832.7523.423.73.3337600
Zimbabwe10430.8-2.1874302670.7-6.4-21.336.454.83.677150
Kyrgyz Republic10530.3-1.24524020.367.3-12.1-2.5125.222.33.055350
Pakistan10630-2.841370013.865-3.351445.6763.387710
Mongolia10728.1-0.76928102.6765.9-11-0.86728.618.72.85296000
Liberia10826.9-0.71395800.63270.9-10.2-822879.14.180
Burkina Faso10923.6-1.11136005.3967.4-7.77-3.924387.24.960
Sierra Leone11022.32.14158003.667.1-13-2136.31234.010
Togo11121.6-9.71569013.971.9-8.24-6.3641.176.94.170
Cote d'Ivoire11220.7-0.00385138008.0773.8-0.77217.142.190.14.387450
Lebanon11319.80.058357902.488.9-21.7-14.612.38.322.080
Oman11419.3083500.012278.8-10.1-12.710.111.32.89795000
Zambia11518.4-0.3411720072.578.7-2.9610.343.464.74.6252
Mali11615.2-1.65159002568.2-6.29-3.8740.81095.470
Cameroon11715.2-1.161740031.872.5-3.423.4743.386.14.378840
Mauritania11814.8-1.5441406.3466.7-19.1-9.2435.583.54.342800
Nigeria11914.3-5.57264004.0589.40.08881.8241.81254.8936400
Angola12013.9-0.2151380013.771.5-1.6-15.95088.85.26145000
Guinea12110.1-0.5631240011.371.6-10.2-2345.61074.410
Benin1229.31-1.1561305.3168.9-9.390.8434499.94.540

It is striking that the highest scoring nations, such as Iceland, Nepal, Costa Rica and Uruguay, come from a wide range of regions and income levels. While wealthy OECD countries occupy many of the top spots, some are far down the rankings: Germany is ranked 28th, with the UK 45th and the US 62nd. Nordic countries perform well as do some countries with broadly Confucian values such as China and Vietnam. Some connections with political variables are explored in greater detail on the correlations page.